When buying sewing supplies, you should consider buying a canvas the color you wish to work on. Stitching on white cloth with small holes can be very tiring to the eyes, but white is still the best color to choose if you are working with very pale yarns, as a dark canvas could show through.
The type of stitch you are using is another factor to take into consideration when choosing the color of your canvas. Random straight stitch, for example, often leaves some canvas showing, so it is usually better to use a fawn-colored canvas (known as ‘antique’).
Needlepoint canvas is made from cotton, linen, or synthetic fibers. It comes in many different shapes and sizes, but there are three main types:
Sewing Supplies: Single-thread plain canvas
Single-thread plain canvas is constructed from evenly spaced single threads woven over and under each other. Sometimes the term ‘mono’ is used rather than ‘single thread’, and ‘regular’ or ‘interwoven’ instead of plain. Because the threads are not bound together, this type of canvas has good give, making it suitable for cushions but not for chair seats or similar items which would soon stretch too much. One of the drawbacks of this canvas as sewing supplies is that the threads or meshes are not interlocked. This means that, for instance, if a tent stitch is used you must be sure that it always is a tent stitch. Goes over two threads at the back so that it cannot unravel. Half cross stitch, which only goes over one thread at the back, cannot be used.
Sewing Supplies: Interlock canvas
Interlock canvas is also constructed from single threads, but they actually pass through each other at the points where they intersect. This type of canvas does not have the give that even weaves do. So it is relatively suitable for cushions and well-upholstered seats. It is particularly useful because it does not unravel, making it ideal sewing supplies for small items that need to be trimmed close to the stitched area.
Sewing Supplies: Double-thread canvas
Double-thread canvas, also known as Penelope canvas, has a double-mesh construction – i.e., pairs of vertical threads. This makes it durable and hardwearing, and therefore ideal for chair seats and other items where some strain will be put on the canvas. It also means that it can be used for finely detailed work because the pairs of threads can be separated, and for work combining finely detailed stitches (known as a petit point) with a large stitch (crosspoint).
The gros-point areas are worked over pairs of threads, and the petit-point areas over single threads which have been separated. In 19th century needlepoints, figures or flowers were often worked in petit-point, while the background was in gros-point. Note: In this book, when the instructions refer to a ‘thread’ of the double-thread canvas, it means a pair of threads. Also, the canvas suggested for each project is the type actually used in the photograph, but a different type could be substituted if preferred.
The closer together the threads of the canvas are. The smaller the needlepoint stitches will be the number of threads per 2.5cm (1in) is known as the gauge of the canvas. Thus, the higher the gauge, the smaller the stitch A 14 gauge canvas, for example, which is very popular for general work, has 14 threads to 2.5cm (1in). Although canvasses can be bought in many different gauges, they are grouped into two ranges: petit-point canvasses, which have 16 or more threads to 2.5cm (1in). and gros-point canvasses, which have fewer than that
To get the most pleasure from your needlepoint projects, it is important to choose a gauge of canvas that you enjoy working with. All but one of the projects in this book is worked on fairly large-holed canvas so that the work progresses relatively quickly and you can learn new stitches more easily.
Sewing Supplies: Yarns
Needlepoint can be worked in any type of thread, as long as it can be threaded easily and passes through the canvas without difficulty. The most commonly used thread is wool, which is sold as tapestry wool, crewel wool, or Persian yarn.
Sewing Supplies: Tapestry wool
Tapestry wool can be used just as it comes, to cover average (10-14) gauge canvas. It cannot be split into separate piles. Tapestry wool comes in 25g (1oz) hanks and small skeins.
Sewing Supplies: Crewel wool
Crewel wool is used as single strands to cover fine gauges or double strands for slightly larger ones. It comes in 25g (1oz) hanks and in small skeins.
Sewing Supplies: Persian yarn
Persian yarn is extremely versatile, as it can be used as it comes (three threads twisted together to form a single strand) or can be split and used as single or double strands, depending on the gauge of the canvas. It is also interesting to mix three shades together for subtle effects. It generally comes in small skeins and 100g (4oz) hanks.
The chart shown below gives a rough idea of how many threads are needed for different gauges of the canvas. It is only an approximate guide because the yarn that will cover the canvas will depend upon the stitch you are using.
The projects in this book use only wool, but nice effects can also be achieved with embroidery silks, metallic threads, and ribbons.
Sewing Supplies: Needles
Tapestry needles should be used rather than ordinary large needles, as tapestry needles have a blunt point to avoid splitting canvas threads. Needles come in sizes 13 (the largest) to 24 (the finest); size 18 is the most commonly used. The size you should use depends on the canvas. The needle needs to pass easily through the holes in the canvas without distorting them.
Sewing Supplies: Frames
The appropriate size for the most popular canvasses is shown in the chart below Whether or not you use a frame is a matter of personal preference. Hand-held and floor-standing frames are both available. The advantages of a frame are that the work does not distort as much while you are working on it. And some complicated stitches are easier to work while the canvas is taut. The disadvantages are loss of speed and the fact that you cannot carry your work around with you as easily. Hoops are only suitable for fine-gauge, soft canvasses.
Sewing Supplies: Scissors
Large scissors for cutting canvas are useful, and you’ll also need some small, sharp scissors for the work itself. Make sure that you work in good light. If you are able to work only at times when artificial light is needed, an anglepoise lamp with a daylight simulation bulb in it makes working a lot more pleasant. Lamps with built-in magnification are also available. At any rate, ordinary overhead lighting is not sufficient for needlepoint.
|CANVAS||YARN (no. of strands and type)||NEEDLE SIZE|
|Single (mono) 22 or 24||1 crewel 1 Persian||24|
|Single (mono) 18||1 crewel 1 Persian||22 or 24|
|Single (mono) 16||2 crewel||22|
|1 or 2 Persian|
|Single (mono) 14 or 12||3 crewel|
|1 tapestry yarn|
|Double (Penelope) 10||3 or 4 crewel|
|2 or 3 Persian 1 tapestry yarn1 tapestry yarn with 1 crewel||20 or 18|
|Single (mono) ordouble (Penelope) 8, 7, or6||1 tapestry yarn with1 crewel 3 or 4 Persian||18 or 16|
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