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How To Using Pest And Organic Controls To Plants?

How To Using Pest And Organic Controls To Plants?

Biological Controls To Plants

The use of biological controls has become increasingly popular over recent years, and the range of predators and parasites available to gardeners has increased dramatically. Many biological controls are most effective when used in a greenhouse or conservatory.

Plants In the Garden

  • Helping out Try to remove some pests by hand to help predators or parasites. Be sure to leave enough pests so that the population of the biological control agent can build up sufficiently.
  • Chemicals Before using chemicals to control pests, check that they will not harm any biological control agents.
  • Caterpillars Use a biological control for caterpillars. Mix Bacillus thuringiensis with water, and spray it on caterpillar-infested plants. Eating the sprayed foliage poisons the pests.

Controlling Slugs and Vine Weevils

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Infecting slugs; Use a nematode parasite to control slugs. Infected slugs develop a swollen mantle, stop feeding, and die within a few days. The soil must be moist and warm for this to work.

Eliminating vine weevils

Control vine weevil grubs with nematodes, tiny, white worms that kill and then feed on the remains of the grub’s body. This method is most effective on plants grown in containers.

In the Greenhouse

  • Suitable pests Try using biological controls for aphids, slugs, vine weevils, thrips, caterpillars, mealybugs, and scale insects.
  • Temperature Always make sure that the temperature in a greenhouse is suitable before introducing biological controls.
  • Timing Introduce biological controls when pests are present, but do not wait until the infestation is too heavy; the biological controls may not be able to multiply rapidly enough to keep up.
  • Ventilation Ventilate a greenhouse when necessary. Predators and parasites will not escape – they usually stay where the pest population is.

Biological Controls to Plants

Greenhouse Controls

Biological controls are generally most successful in the controlled environment of a greenhouse or conservatory. Make sure that you introduce enough predators or parasites to deal with the pests.

Controlling whiteflies

Use the wasp Encarsia formosa, which parasitizes young whiteflies. A wasp develops inside the whitefly, then kills it.

Controlling spider mite

The predatory mite Phytoseiulns persimilis moves rapidly and eats all stages of the spider mite, including the eggs.

Organic Controls

Organic controls are derived mostly from plants. Although they can be effective, the range of problems they control is limited, and none are systemic (carried to the roots). Many organic remedies are not selective and kill a variety of insects, including beneficial ones.

Using Derris

Uses Derris is derived from Derris and Lonchocarpus roots. It controls flea beetles, thrips, caterpillars, raspberry beetles, sawflies, and spider mites.

Using Pyrethrum

Uses Pyrethrum is derived from the flowers of Chrysan­themum cinerariifolium. Use it to treat caterpillars, white- flies, ants, and aphids.

Applying powder

For effective control, apply derris powder regularly and thoroughly, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Derris is not selective, so target only the pests you wish to control.

Spraying liquid

Pyrethrum is a nonselective but quick-acting pesticide, so aim at target pests only. Spray leaves on both surfaces to ensure that most of the pests are killed. Pyrethrum is harmless to mammals.

Applying Controls

  • Nonpersistent controls Many organic treatments remain active for no more than a day, so you may, therefore, need to apply them more frequently than their chemical counterparts.
  • Spraying Always use a good- quality sprayer to apply a control, and be sure to wash it out thoroughly between applications. Never keep leftover solution for future use.
  • Protecting bees Never allow spray to drift onto open flowers, especially blossoms, or you may harm visiting bees.
  • Harvesting crops It is usually safe to eat most crop plants fairly soon after an organic control has been applied, but always check the product label carefully for preparation details.

Using Other Organic Controls

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There are several different types of organic treatment available to gardeners, but availability may change, since, like chemical controls, they are constantly subject to legislation. Because some organic treatments are not selective, find out all you can about each one to determine which products are suitable for your purposes.

  • Insecticidal soaps Use these for effective control of aphids, spider mites, thrips, leafhoppers, scale insccts, mealybugs, and whiteflies. Insecticidal soaps are made from fatty acids produced by animal or plane sources. The soaps are not selective in their action, however, and last only approximately one day.
  • Copper-based sprays Copper-based fungicides arc suitable for use on edible crops. They control a range of plant diseases, including potato blights, celery leaf spoL, apple canker, bactcria! canker, and leaf spots on fruits.
  • Sulfur Use sulfur to control diseases such as storage rots and powdery mildew on ornamental plants and fruits.

Safety Tips

  • Storage Keep all organic concentrates out of reach of children and pets.
  • Checking the label Read the manufacturer’s instructions, and follow them very carefully.
  • When to use Spray on a calm day, in the evening.
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