Dealing With The Major Injuries

Dealing With The Major Injuries

Dealing With The Major Injuries

Electrical Injuries
Many electrical injuries in the home result from faulty switches, frayed cords, and defective appliances. Handling safe appliances with wet hands, or when standing on a wet floor, can greatly increase the risk of shock.

Breaking The Contact

• lf someone has been injured by electricity, first break the current by switching off the supply at the circuit breaker or meter. If this is difficult, pull the cable free from the outlet.
• If you cannot cut the power, stand on insulating material and use a wooden broom handle to disconnect the current from the victim.
• “Wrap a dry towel around the victim’s feet, and drag him away from the appliance. As a last resort, pull on his loose clothes (if they are dry).
• Check for breathing and pulse if the victim is unconscious. Resuscitate if necessary. If the victim seems unharmed, make him rest, and call a doctor. Treat for shock and burns if necessary.

rescue a drowning person

• Reduce the risks of drowning by encouraging all members of the household to learn to swim as well as possible.
• Remember that a small child can drown in as little as 1 in (2.5 cm) of water. Watch children constantly if they are playing near or in water.

Rescuing a Victim From Drowning
A breathing victim: Having rescued a victim, hold her so that the head is lower than the chest to enable water to drain out. Dry her and keep her warm. All victims of near-drowning should go to the hospital – even if they appear to have recovered – to check that no water is in the lungs. Otherwise, secondary drowning – when the airway swells up later – may occur.

A Nonbreaching Victim: Administering C PR If a victim is unconscious after being rescued from drowning, check her breathing and pulse. Begin CPR if she is not breathing. You may find CPR difficult to administer, however, if the victim’s lungs are full of water.

Preventing Problems: Hypothermia If a victim of drowning has spent some time in the water, she may suffer from hypothermia – a potentially fatal reduction in body temperature. Remove all her wet clothes as quickly as possible, dry her thoroughly, and keep her warm and quiet.

Burns and Scalds
Cool burns and scalds at once to prevent further tissue damage and reduce pain. If a fire is the cause of the victim’s injury, make sure that both you and she are safe before attempting treatment.

Treating Major Burns: Remove the victim from the source of the burn. Pour cold water onto the burn for at least 10 minutes.

Chemical Burns:Detection These can be caused by toxic household substances. They are less obvious than heat burns, and may take time to develop.

Removing Chemicals
Hold the burned area under cool, running water for at least 10 minutes and wash away all traces of the chemical. Wear rubber gloves to prevent the chemical from splashing on to you. Treat the affected area as for major burns.

Scalds Effectively
• Carefully remove clothing and jewelry from the burn area, cutting around any cloth sticking to the wound.
• Continue to cool the burn if necessary, by immersing it in cold water or any other cool liquid, such as milk.
• Get medical attention as quickly as possible. Treat the victim for shock if necessary. Do not offer her food or drink. Continue to reassure her.

Treating Minor Burns
• Treating Cool the burn for at least 10 minutes, as above. Remove any jewelry and clothing from around the burn before the area starts to swell.
• Dressing Cover minor burns with any clean, nonfluffy material. Avoid applying adhesive dressings since they can damage skin near the burn when they are removed.
• Cover the burn with a clean dressing. If the burn is large, use a clean sheet or pillowcase. Do not apply any fats or creams.

Electrical Burns:Causes Electrical burns are caused by lightning, or high- or low-voltage current. In the home, low-voltage current can cause scorching to the skin.

Treating The Injury
Make sure the current is off. Administer CPR or treat for shock if necessary. Hold the burn under cool, running water for at least 10 minutes. Cover with a sterile dressing. Seek medical help, since electrical current can cause internal injury.

Burns to the Airway
Administering water: Burns to the mouth or throat – caused by inhaling hot fumes for example – are dangerous, since they sometimes cause the airway to swell. Loosen clothing around the victim’s neck, and give him sips of cold water. Reassure him and go to the hospital at once.

• Household chemicals can be poisonous if ingested, as can certain plants and drugs. Seek medical attention as soon as possible. Try to identify the type of poison involved. Keep a sample of the substance ingested, any vomit, or containers or pill bottles found nearby.
• lf you suspect that a caustic substance might have burned the mouth and throat, wipe any residue off the victim’s mouth and lower face. Wash the area gently with cold water.
Dealing with Poisoning by Household Chemicals
• Give the victim frequent sips of cold water or milk to reduce burning on the lips and in the mouth. Take care at all times not to contaminate yourself, and remove any contaminated clothing.
• Give relevant information off the chemical container when seeking qualified advice. Take the container with you to the hospital to facilitate treatment. See below if the victim is unconscious.

drug poisining

Dealing With Drug Poisoning
• lf the victim is conscious, try to find out which drug has been taken, how much, and when it was ingested. If he has vomited, keep a sample for the doctor, and also keep the bottle in which the drugs were kept for identification.
• Take the victim to the hospital, talking to him calmly to keep him conscious, Take the drug bottle with you. Be prepared to treat for shock. See below for the appropriate action if the victim is unconscious.

Do not induce vomiting since this will bring back the poisonous chemical which may cause further damage.

Breathing and Pulse Present
• lf breathing and pulse are present, place the victim in the recovery position to keep the airway open and call an ambulance.
• Treat any related injuries such as chemical burns if Necessary.
No Breathing, but Pulse Present
• Give 10 breaths of rescue breathing. Call an ambulance, and repeat.
• Continue to give rescue breathing to the victim until an ambulance arrives. Check the pulse every minute (after every 10 breaths).

No Breathing, No Pulse
• Tell someone to call an ambulance. Administer 15 chest compressions, followed by two breaths of rescue breathing.
• Continue administering CPR until the heartbeat and breathing resume as normal.

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